Browse Items (40 total)

Aims & Objectives: To study the epidemiology of deaths in our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over 5 years, so that we can better understand the dying experience of these patients and improve on palliative care for patients with life-limiting…

Tissue destruction is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction. The inflammatory reaction leads to activation of nociceptors and the sensation of pain. Several mediators are responsible for pain and hyperalgesia in inflammation including cytokines,…

The Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) is a 20-item behaviour rating scale designed to assess pain in children with severe neurological disability. We assessed the validity and reliability of the scale in 140 children (76 females, mean age 9 years 11…

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 60% of deaths in pediatric intensive care units follow limitation or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment (LST). We aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding decision making and end-of-life care in this setting.…

Pain is a common symptom at the end of life. The vast majority of pain can be readily managed if simple principles of practice are followed. Chronic pain requires continuous analgesia, and severe pain requires use of strong analgesics, most commonly…

BACKGROUND: Codeine analgesia is wholly or mostly due to its metabolism to morphine by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6, which shows significant genetic variation in activity. The aims of this study were to investigate genotype, phenotype and…

The kinetics of morphine in the plasma of children (0 to 15 yr) can in most cases be adequately described by a triexponential function. When the dosage in children receiving morphine as premedication before surgery is based on kilograms of body…

In this review a case is presented for the use of mathematical modelling in the study of pain. The philosophy of mathematical modelling is outlined and a recommendation is made for the use of modern nonlinear techniques and computational neuroscience…

PURPOSE: Methadone is still regarded as a second line opioid for patients suffering from severe pain, and is rarely used in hospitalized patients. The infrequent use of methadone is probably due to its long plasma half-life that could lead to…

In appropriately selected patients, PCA safely provides analgesia superior to that obtained with traditional IM prn opioid administration; however, to date, no compelling evidence shows that PCA is associated with a reduction in morbidity or a more…

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for pain medication and the adequacy or inadequacy of the analgesia achieved, in children with cancer who died while in terminal care. Of the 100 pediatric patients with cancer treated at the…

Forty-five children (aged 6-12 yr) undergoing appendicectomy received one of three analgesic regimens using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine: no background infusion (BO); background infusion 4 micrograms kg-1 h-1 (B4); background…

Forty children undergoing appendicectomy were allocated randomly to receive one of two PCA regimens with morphine. Group B10 received bolus doses of 10 micrograms kg-1 and group B20 received bolus doses of 20 micrograms kg-1. In both groups there was…

BACKGROUND: Methadone is a very useful drug in cancer pain because of its low cost, lack of active metabolites, high oral availability, and the rapid onset of its analgesic effect. It seems to be well tolerated in patients with difficult pain…

OBJECTIVE: Pain relief is still inadequate in many hospitalized patients, especially children in whom suboptimal use of analgesic drugs is still common. In the past 2 years, oral methadone has been used extensively in our institution for treating…

Ninety-eight continuous postoperative epidurals were administered to 87 children. The patients were divided into two groups: group I included 63 cases in which a 0.0625-0.25% solution of bupivacaine was continuously administered; group II included 35…

Physiological, plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol responses to nasotracheal intubation were studied in 20 distressed infants of median age 0.3 days (range 0.1-23 days) randomized into groups given pethidine 1 mg/kg (n = 10) or alfentanil 20…

PURPOSE: To define the dose ratio between morphine and methadone in relation to the previous morphine dose and the number of days needed to achieve the same level of analgesia in a group of patients with advanced cancer with pain who switched from…

Traditionally, opioids have been administered as fixed doses at fixed dose intervals. This approach has been largely ineffective. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and upgraded traditional approaches incorporating flexibility in dose size and dose…

Recently, patient controlled analgesia (PCA) has gained prominence in the treatment of pain for children suffering from vaso-occlusive crisis associated with sickle cell disease. Because there are several different regimens that can be used for PCA,…

Introduction: The high incidence and prevalence of chronic pain in patients with CF is well documented. In patient surveys, reports of intense pain range from 33% - 82% of respondents. Commonly reported sources of pain include headache, sinuses,…

Background: There are 600 new pediatric cancer cases in Chile in a year, with an overall survival of 70% and there are two systems that guarantee the access for patients to health providers: The public system, or national health fund (FONASA), and…

Purpose/Objective(s): Palliative radiation therapy (pRT) for pediatric cancer patients is often used to treat pain, neurologic symptoms, and other conditions from progressive cancer that affects quality of life. However, though the doses used are…

Introduction: Subcutaneous hydration (hypodermoclysis) and drug administration is a widely used method of analgesic therapy in adult palliative care medicine. Very little is known about its use in neonatal medicine. Evidence-based guidelines do not…

Dr Stefan Friedrichsdorf speaks to Commissioning Editor Jade Parker: Stefan Friedrichsdorf, MD, is medical director of the Department of Pain Medicine, Palliative Care and Integrative Medicine at Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota in…

Objective: To characterize cases of children admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary university hospital who died in the period ranging from January 01, 2012 to July 31, 2014, and who required palliative care and/or were subjected…

Aim To determine the experience of training in paediatric palliative medicine (PPM) among trainees, to identify how well trainees were able to meet RCPCH competences in PPM, and to explore educational opportunities desired by trainees to enhance…

Background: Pain is one of the most common symptoms in children and young people (CYP) with life-limiting conditions (LLCs) which include a wide range of diagnoses including cancer. The current literature indicates that pain is not well managed,…

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