Browse Items (105 total)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An up-to-date summary of the literature on children's and adolescents' understanding of their own terminal illness and death. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinicians still find it difficult to speak with pediatric patients about death even…

BACKGROUND: The information needs of parents facing end-of-life decisions for their child are complex due to the wide-ranging dimensions within which such significant events unfold. While parents acknowledge that healthcare professionals are their…

The authors examined psychosocial outcomes following the first year of bereavement, for 51 family caregivers, including both spouses and offspring. Researchers assessed caregivers during palliative care and again during the second year of…

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric palliative care has seen the adoption of several service provision models, yet there is minimal literature describing them. Canuck Place Children's Hospice (CPCH) is North America's first freestanding pediatric hospice. This…

Importance: The death of a close relative is associated with an increased mortality risk among the bereaved, but much less is known about the potential association of the death of a sibling in childhood with mortality in this population. Objective:…

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Our findings offer guidance to improve aftercare for bereaved siblings and their families. Additional research is needed to further delineate the needs of bereaved siblings and to develop strategies to promote adaptation to…

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe our experience removing esophageal coins from children in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department over a 4-year period. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a continuous quality…

Sedation with analgesia is frequently required to perform painful or invasive procedures in children. The best medication combination for pediatric sedation with analgesia is yet to be identified. Sixty-four of 243 total sedation with analgesia…

OBJECTIVES: To record the number of children with withdrawal symptoms after the administration of sedatives for mechanical ventilation, and to discuss the possible connection with the administration of midazolam. DESIGN: Retrospective data collection…

OBJECTIVE: To describe the consequences of the prolonged administration of sedative and analgesic agents to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patient. The problems to be investigated include tolerance, physical dependency, and withdrawal. DATA…

PURPOSE: To define the dose ratio between morphine and methadone in relation to the previous morphine dose and the number of days needed to achieve the same level of analgesia in a group of patients with advanced cancer with pain who switched from…

PURPOSE: Along with evidence, clinical policies must take patients' values into account. Particularly where evidence is limited and where assumptions of utility-maximizing behavior may not be valid, new methods such as trade-off techniques (TOTs),…

We investigated the contractile mechanisms of action of three putative gastroprokinetic agents (cisapride, metoclopramide, and domperidone) on the linear phase of gastroduodenal emptying of solid meals in six healthy conscious dogs. The spatial and…

OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between general practitioners' knowledge about their patients and the use of resources in consultations. DESIGN--A cross sectional evaluation of consultations. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--A representative sample of 133…

Feeding difficulties are common in neurologically impaired children, often leading to great distress and frustration in the child and family. A gastrostomy may be advocated if oral intake is inadequate causing poor weight gain or when there is…

Sanfilippo syndrome is a rare degenerative disorder which has severe intellectual and behavioural sequelae, commonly including sleep problems. A parental questionnaire was used to gather information on the sleep patterns of 80 children with…

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of the current practice of liberally or routinely employing episiotomy to prevent perineal tears and pelvic floor relaxation (control group) to a policy of restricting episiotomy use to specific fetal and maternal…

Forty-seven mothers and 33 fathers, representing 48 families, participated in a propective longitudinal study of the effects on family members of a child's dying. The purpose of this article is to describe parents' health during the terminal illness…

This multivariate study examined the relationship between meaning in caregiving--positive beliefs about the caregiving situation and the self as caregiver--and the psychological well-being of 131 informal caregivers to community-residing frail…

Using data from Americans' Changing Lives: Wave 1, 1986, this study examined the long-term effects on the personal functioning of older women and men following the death of an adult child or a spouse. Guided by Weiss's (1993) theoretical framework,…

Forty children undergoing appendicectomy were allocated randomly to receive one of two PCA regimens with morphine. Group B10 received bolus doses of 10 micrograms kg-1 and group B20 received bolus doses of 20 micrograms kg-1. In both groups there was…

The ventilatory effects of single i.v. doses of morphine 0.1 mg kg-1, pethidine 0.67 mg kg-1 and methadone 0.1 mg kg-1 were compared after ophthalmic surgery in an open, randomized study in 30 children aged 3-8 yr. Ventilatory changes after each drug…

PURPOSE: To determine hormone concentrations (ACTH, cortisol, beta-endorphin) in children before and after surgery, to assess the correlation between any hormonal changes and to study the influence exercised on them by the severity of surgical stress…

This paper examines three aspects of hunger disease: the effect of initial fat stores on macronutrient fuel selection during total starvation (no energy) and how it influences survival; the effects of different rates of weight loss on tissue and body…

During prolonged starvation, brain energy requirements are covered in part by the metabolism of ketone bodies. It is unknown whether short-term starvation of a few days' duration may lead to reduced brain glucose metabolism due to the change toward…

The relationship between perceptions of control and symptoms of both long-term depression and post-traumatic stress was examined. Enduring beliefs of personal competence and control were found to be associated with lower rates of depression and…

Although the physiological implications of long-term gastrostomy for children with severe disability are well documented in the nursing literature, little is known about the psychosocial effect of this technological intervention. This study documents…

Communication with dying patients and their families requires special skills to assist them in this extremely stressful period. This article begins with a case that illustrates many of the challenges of communicating with the dying. It then reviews…

The past decade has brought about an explosion of knowledge about the physiology of nociception and many new techniques for pain relief, new analgesic drugs, and new applications of old analgesic drugs. These techniques include methods of opioid…

Basal and dexamethasone-suppressed adrenal glucocorticoid secretion and hypothalamic beta-endorphin (BE) release in vitro were investigated in rats deprived of food for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Fasting for up to 48 h neither caused significant changes…

To compare the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous and intravenous infusion of opioid analgesics, a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial was carried out in inpatients. 15 patients with severe cancer pain received two 48 h infusions of…

BACKGROUND: Birth defects impose substantial costs on both families and society because of medical, developmental, and special education needs. Caring for children with birth defects also may influence caregiver time and impact the family. However,…

We report on clinical, electrophysiological, neuroradiological, and morphological data from 19 patients with different types (late infantile, juvenile, and adult) of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL), observed in the last 10 years at the…

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a low-cost strategy for providing preventive health services to adolescents using computerized health assessments with individualized educational videos, trained health counselors, and nurses. DESIGN: Feasibility study, cost…

In rats that were fasted for 2 to 3 days there was a decline in hypothalamic, but not pituitary, beta-endorphin. There was no change in pituitary or hypothalamic adrenocorticotropin content as a result of fasting. Endogenous opiates may be involved…
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