Methadone Conversion In Infants

And Children: Retrospective Cohort Study Of 199 Pediatric Inpatients.

Title

Methadone Conversion In Infants

And Children: Retrospective Cohort Study Of 199 Pediatric Inpatients.

Creator

Fife A; Postier A; Flood A; Friedrichsdorf SJ

Publisher

Journal Of Opioid Management

Date

2016

Subject

Administration Oral; Adolescent; Age Factors; Analgesics Opioid/administration & Dosage; Analgesics Opioid/adverse Effects; Child; Child Preschool; Consciousness/drug Effects; Drug Administration Schedule; Drug Dosage Calculations; Drug Monitoring; Drug Overdose/etiology; Drug Substitution; Hospitals Pediatric; Humans; Infant; Infant Newborn; Inpatients; Intubation Intratracheal; Methadone/administration & Dosage; Methadone/adverse Effects; Minnesota; Pain/diagnosis; Pain/drug Therapy; Pharmacy Service Hospital; Respiration Artificial; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/etiology; Tertiary Care Centers; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; Substances; Analgesics Opioid; Methadone

Description

OBJECTIVE:
Methadone administration has increased in pediatric clinical settings. This review is an attempt to ascertain an equianalgesic dose ratio for methadone in the pediatric population using standard adult dose conversion guidelines.

SETTING:
US tertiary children's hospital.

PATIENTS:
Hospitalized pediatric patients, 0-18 years of age.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who were converted from their initial opioid therapy regimen (morphine, hydromorphone, and/or fentanyl) to methadone. The primary endpoint was whether or not a dose correction was needed for methadone in the 6 days following conversion using standard dose conversion charts for adults. Documented clinical signs of withdrawal, unrelieved pain, or oversedation were examined.

RESULTS:
The majority (53.7 percent) of the 199 children were converted to methadone on intensive care units prior extubation or postextubation. The mean conversion ratio was 23.7 mg of oral morphine to 1 mg of oral methadone (median, 18.8 mg:1 mg, SD=25.7). Most patients experienced an adequate conversion (n=115, 57.8 percent), while 83 (41.7 percent) appeared undermedicated, and one child was oversedated. There were no associations found with conversion ratios for initial morphine dose, days to conversion, or effect of withdrawal of concomitant agents with potential for withdrawal.

CONCLUSIONS:
Opioid conversion to methadone is commonly practiced at our institution; however, dosing was significantly lower compared to adult conversion ratios, and more than 40 percent of children were undermedicated. The majority of children in this study received opioids for sedation while intubated and ventilated; therefore, safe and efficacious pediatric methadone conversion rates remain unclear. Prospective studies are needed.

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. PedPalASCNET does not hold any rights over the resource listed here. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Citation List Month

May 2016 List

Citation

Fife A; Postier A; Flood A; Friedrichsdorf SJ, “Methadone Conversion In Infants

And Children: Retrospective Cohort Study Of 199 Pediatric Inpatients.,” Pediatric Palliative Care Library, accessed December 7, 2021, https://pedpalascnetlibrary.omeka.net/items/show/10606.

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