Talking with terminally ill patients and their caregivers about death, dying, and bereavement: is it stressful? Is it helpful?

Title

Talking with terminally ill patients and their caregivers about death, dying, and bereavement: is it stressful? Is it helpful?

Creator

Emanuel EJ; Fairclough DL; Wolfe P; Emanuel LL

Publisher

Archives Of Internal Medicine

Date

2004

Subject

Female; Humans; Male; United States; Terminal Care; Adult; Prospective Studies; Aged; Middle Aged; Attitude to Death; Communication; Death; Speech; Stress; adolescent; 80 and over; Empirical Approach; Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support; bereavement; Caregivers/psychology; Death and Euthanasia; Interviews; Psychological/etiology/psychology; Terminally Ill/psychology

Description

BACKGROUND: Discussing end-of-life issues with terminally ill patients is often considered distressing and harmful. This study was conducted to assess whether interviewing terminally ill patients and their caregivers about death, dying, and bereavement is stressful and/or helpful. METHODS: Patients from 6 sites in the United States who were estimated to have 6 months or less to live were interviewed in person and reinterviewed 2 to 6 months later. Their caregivers were interviewed separately. At the end of the interviews, patients and caregivers were asked how stressful and how helpful the interview had been. Of 1131 eligible patients, 988 (87.4%) were interviewed, and of 915 eligible caregivers, 893 (97.6%) were interviewed. RESULTS: At the end of the first interview, 1.9% of the patients reported having experienced a great deal of stress, 7.1% some stress, and 88.7% little or no stress from the interview. Among the caregivers, 1.5% reported a great deal of stress, 8.4% some stress, and 89.7% little or no stress. Slightly more stress was reported to have been caused by the reinterview. Overall, 16.9% of the patients reported the initial interview as very helpful, 29.6% as somewhat helpful, and 49.6% as offering little or no help. Among the caregivers, 19.1% reported the initial interview as very helpful, 34.3% as somewhat helpful, and 44.9% as offering little or no help. The reported helpfulness of the second interview was slightly less. Patients experiencing pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.56), more personal meaning in dying (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.02-4.59), and less ease with talking about the end of life (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.60) were significantly more likely to report stress. Patients who were from an ethnic minority (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.31-2.63), anxious about the end of their life (OR, 1.39; 95% CI 1.16-1.67), more spiritual (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), and serene (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.45) were significantly more likely to report the interview helpful. There was no relationship between stress and helpfulness. CONCLUSIONS: Terminally ill patients and their caregivers can discuss death, dying, and bereavement in a structured interview with minimal stress and report that the interview was helpful. Institutional review boards should not preemptively restrict surveys with terminally ill patients without reliable evidence that they will be stressful or otherwise harmful.
2004

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. PedPalASCNET does not hold any rights over the resource listed here. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Type

Journal Article

Citation List Month

Backlog

Pages

1999-2004

Issue

18

Volume

164

Citation

Emanuel EJ; Fairclough DL; Wolfe P; Emanuel LL, “Talking with terminally ill patients and their caregivers about death, dying, and bereavement: is it stressful? Is it helpful?,” Pediatric Palliative Care Library, accessed May 27, 2018, https://pedpalascnetlibrary.omeka.net/items/show/13120.

Social Bookmarking