Racial Inequities in Palliative Referral for Children with High-Intensity Neurologic Impairment

Title

Racial Inequities in Palliative Referral for Children with High-Intensity Neurologic Impairment

Creator

Jones MN; Simpson SL; Beck AF; Cortezzo DE; Thienprayoon R; Corley AMS; Thomson J

Publisher

Journal of Pediatrics

Date

2024

Subject

Child; child; adult; article; cohort analysis; controlled study; female; human; major clinical study; male; retrospective study; chronic disease; Socioeconomic Factors; gestational age; Referral and Consultation; ethnicity; Only Child; patient referral; tertiary care center; morbidity; mortality; neurologic examination; multidisciplinary team; Hispanic; medicaid; racism; primary medical care; special situation for pharmacovigilance; racial disparity; economic inequality

Description

Objective: To evaluate whether racial and socioeconomic inequities in pediatric palliative care utilization extend to children with high-intensity neurologic impairment (HI-NI), which is a chronic neurological diagnosis resulting in substantial functional morbidity and mortality. Study design: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with HI-NI who received primary care services at a tertiary care center from 2014 through 2019. HI-NI diagnoses that warranted a palliative care referral were identified by consensus of a multidisciplinary team. The outcome was referral to palliative care. The primary exposure was race, categorized as Black or non-Black to represent the impact of anti-Black racism. Additional exposures included ethnicity (Hispanic/non-Hispanic) and insurance status (Medicaid/non-Medicaid). Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to assess associations between exposures and palliative care referral. Results: A total of 801 patients with HI-NI were included; 7.5% received a palliative referral. There were no differences in gestational age, sex, or ethnicity between patients who received a referral and those who did not. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for ethnicity, sex, gestational age, and presence of complex chronic conditions, Black children (aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26, 0.84) and children with Medicaid insurance (aOR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23, 0.70) each had significantly lower odds of palliative referral compared with their non-Black and non-Medicaid-insured peers, respectively. Conclusions: We identified inequities in pediatric palliative care referral among children with HI-NI by race and insurance status. Future work is needed to develop interventions, with families, aimed at promoting more equitable, antiracist systems of palliative care.

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. PedPalASCNET does not hold any rights over the resource listed here. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Citation List Month

April List 2024

Collection

Citation

Jones MN; Simpson SL; Beck AF; Cortezzo DE; Thienprayoon R; Corley AMS; Thomson J, “Racial Inequities in Palliative Referral for Children with High-Intensity Neurologic Impairment,” Pediatric Palliative Care Library, accessed May 27, 2024, https://pedpalascnetlibrary.omeka.net/items/show/19543.