Relationship between three palliative care outcome scales


Relationship between three palliative care outcome scales


Higginson IJ; Donaldson N


Health And Quality Of Life Outcomes




Female; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Adult; England; Questionnaires; Aged; Middle Aged; Socioeconomic Factors; Psychometrics; Sickness Impact Profile; 80 and over; Adaptation; Psychological; Caregivers/psychology; Family/psychology; Palliative Care/psychology; Quality of Life/psychology; home care services; Neoplasms/physiopathology/psychology/therapy; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/methods


BACKGROUND: Various scales have been used to assess palliative outcomes. But measurement can still be problematic and core components of measures have not been identified. This study aimed to determine the relationships between, and factorial structure of, three widely used scales among advanced cancer patients. METHODS: Patients were recruited who received home or hospital palliative care services in the south of England. Hope, quality of life and palliative outcomes were assessed by patients in face to face interviews, using three previously established scales - a generic measure (EQoL), a palliative care specific measure (POS) and a measure of hope (Herth Hope Index). Analysis comprised: exploratory factor analysis of each individual scale, and all scales combined, and confirmatory factor analysis for model building and validation. RESULTS: Of 171 patients identified, 140 (81%) consented and completed first interviews; mean age was 71 years, 54% were women, 132 had cancer. In exploratory analysis of individual means, three out of the five factors in the EQoL explained 75% of its variability, four out of the 10 factors in POS explained 63% of its variability, and in the Hope Index, nine out of the 12 items explained 69% of its variability. When exploring the relative factorial structure of all three scales, five factors explained 56% of total combined variability. Confirmatory analysis reduced this to a model with four factors - self-sufficiency, positivity, symptoms and spiritual. Removal of the spiritual factor left a model with an improved goodness of fit and a measure with 11 items. CONCLUSION: We identified three factors which are important outcomes and would be simple to measure in clinical practice and research.


Article information provided for research and reference use only. PedPalASCNET does not hold any rights over the resource listed here. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).


Journal Article

Citation List Month



Higginson IJ; Donaldson N, “Relationship between three palliative care outcome scales,” Pediatric Palliative Care Library, accessed February 26, 2024,