Responding to intractable terminal suffering: the role of terminal sedation and voluntary refusal of food and fluids.

Title

Responding to intractable terminal suffering: the role of terminal sedation and voluntary refusal of food and fluids.

Creator

Quill TE; Byock IR; Panel ACP-ASIMEnd-of-Life Care Consensus

Publisher

Annals Of Internal Medicine

Date

2000

Subject

Humans; Male; United States; Consensus; Treatment Refusal; Aged; Intention; Fluid Therapy; Morals; Food; Suicide; Non-U.S. Gov't; Professional Patient Relationship; Research Support; patient care team; Death and Euthanasia; Psychological; Stress; Ethics; Assisted; Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage; Double Effect; Palliative Care/legislation & jurisprudence/methods

Description

When provided by a skilled, multidisciplinary team, palliative care is highly effective at addressing the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs of dying patients and their families. However, some patients who have witnessed harsh death want reassurance that they can escape if their suffering becomes intolerable. In addition, a small percentage of terminally ill patients receiving comprehensive care reach a point at which their suffering becomes severe and unacceptable despite unrestrained palliative efforts; some of these patients request that death be hastened. This paper presents terminal sedation and voluntary refusal of hydration and nutrition as potential last resorts that can be used to address the needs of such patients. These two practices allow clinicians to address a much wider range of intractable end-of-life suffering than physician-assisted suicide (even if it were legal) and can also provide alternatives for patients, families, and clinicians who are morally opposed to physician-assisted suicide. This paper will define the two practices, distinguish them from more standard palliative care interventions and from physician-assisted suicide, illustrate them with a real clinical scenario, provide potential guidelines and practicalities, and explore their moral and legal status. Although medicine cannot sanitize dying or provide perfect answers for all challenging end-of-life clinical problems, terminal sedation and voluntary refusal of hydration and nutrition substantially increase patients' choices at this inherently challenging time.
2000

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. PedPalASCNET does not hold any rights over the resource listed here. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Type

Journal Article

Citation List Month

Backlog

Pages

408-414

Issue

5

Volume

132

Citation

Quill TE; Byock IR; Panel ACP-ASIMEnd-of-Life Care Consensus, “Responding to intractable terminal suffering: the role of terminal sedation and voluntary refusal of food and fluids.,” Pediatric Palliative Care Library, accessed June 13, 2021, https://pedpalascnetlibrary.omeka.net/items/show/11737.

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