Characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critically ill pediatric patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A multicenter retrospective cohort study

Title

Characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critically ill pediatric patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A multicenter retrospective cohort study

Creator

Alfraij A; Bin Alamir AA; Al-Otaibi AM; Alsharrah D; Aldaithan A; Kamel AM; Almutairi M; Alshammari S; Almazyad M; Macarambon JM; Alghounaim M

Publisher

Journal of Infection and Public Health

Date

2020

Subject

Children; Mortality; SARS-CoV-2; Intensive care

Description

BACKGROUND: Characteristics of critical Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is not well understood. This study described the clinical characteristics of children admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and explored factors associated with the need for invasive ventilation or mortality. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, cohort study was conducted over eight medical centers, including all patients younger than 18 years of age and admitted to the ICU due to a direct consequence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients who were admitted to the ICU for any alternate reason and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by screening test, and patients who were admitted due to multi-inflammatory syndrome in children, were excluded. Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and clinical data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to compare survivors and non-survivors. Fine and Gray's hazard model was used to estimate the association between clinical variables and ICU death. RESULTS: During the study period, 25 pediatric COVID-19 patients received care in the ICUs. The median age was 2.78 years (IQR 0.21-8.51), and 60% were male. Only three patients were reported to be previously healthy at admission. Nine (36%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, including two were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Four (16%) patients died during ICU care. In univariate analysis, the presence of comorbidity (HR 0.0001; 95%CI 0.00001-0.00016), platelets count (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-0.99), elevated procalcitonin (HR 1.05; 95%CI 1.016-1.09), and circulatory compromise (HR 16.34; 95%CI 1.99-134.35), all at the time of ICU admission, were associated with in-ICU mortality. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that children admitted to the ICU with SARS-CoV-2 infection, generally, have a favorable outcome. Low platelets count, elevated procalcitonin, presence of comorbidity, and shock at the time of ICU admission were associated with death. This study may shed more light on the disease dynamics of critical pediatric COVID-19.

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. PedPalASCNET does not hold any rights over the resource listed here. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Citation List Month

March 2021 List

Collection

Citation

Alfraij A; Bin Alamir AA; Al-Otaibi AM; Alsharrah D; Aldaithan A; Kamel AM; Almutairi M; Alshammari S; Almazyad M; Macarambon JM; Alghounaim M, “Characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critically ill pediatric patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A multicenter retrospective cohort study,” Pediatric Palliative Care Library, accessed September 22, 2021, https://pedpalascnetlibrary.omeka.net/items/show/17468.

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