Browse Items (112 total)

The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is the endogenous ligand for the opioid-like receptor ORL-1 and is thought to be involved in pain transmission and modulation. Human studies have not yet defined its role in pain patients. The aims of…

The aim of this study was to systematically review and critically appraise the evidence on the effectiveness of hypnosis for procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric cancer patients. A comprehensive search of major biomedical and specialist…

Palliative care surveys often rely on bereaved family members to act as proxies to provide information on patient care at the end of life, after the patient's death. However, when comparing bereaved family members' assessments with those of the…

This article reviews the literature pertaining to the metabolism of several of the commonly used opioids, and the known activity of their metabolites. The effect of renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and metabolites is then…

Hospice care is perceived as enhancing life quality for patients with advanced, incurable illness, but cost comparisons to non-hospice patients are difficult to make. The very large Medicare expenditures for care given during the end of life,…

To determine whether hospital-based palliative care teams improve the process or outcomes of care for patients and families at the end of life, a systematic literature review was performed employing a qualitative meta-synthesis and quantitative…

Improvement in the care of dying hospitalized patients was sought by providing evaluative feedback to individual physicians (n = 46) and nurses in three biannual _Palliative Care Reports._ Hospitalized adult patients (n = 194) for whom _death was…

Research in end-of-life care is constrained more by pragmatic, social, cultural, and financial constraints than ethical issues that preclude the application of typical research methodologies. When normally accepted and ethically sound protections for…

Voluntariness is a requirement that is frequently voiced in research ethics but is poorly understood. This article seeks to clarify voluntariness and assess its significance in clinical research at the end of life. First, what voluntariness is and…

Bisphosphonates have become standard treatment in management of malignancy-induced hypercalcemia and malignant bone pain. One obstacle to the routine use of bisphosphonates in palliative patients is that oral bisphosphonates have low bioavailability…

Patients with cancer sometimes are admitted to the emergency room due to severe pain. Despite the fact that morphine's hydrophilicity can delay its peak effects after intravenous administration up to 30 minutes, it is still the most commonly used…

A reliable and valid measure of the quality of the dying experience would help clinicians and researchers improve care for dying patients. To describe the validity of an instrument assessing the quality of dying and death using the perspective of…

The transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) fentanyl has been designed for rate-controlled drug delivery. It provides a convenient regimen for the use of a drug previously limited by a short duration of action and a noninvasive parenteral route for a…

After a baseline symptom and laboratory assessment, 24 patients with metastatic bone disease and pain were randomized to receive either a 4-hr intravenous infusion of 2-dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MDP), 600 mg in 500 mL of normal saline, or…

The purpose of this study was to examine how health-care providers in U.S. teaching hospitals assess and manage children's pain. A 59-item questionnaire was sent to institutions with pediatric residency programs listed in the 1992 National Residency…

This study examined the differences in the prescription and administration of analgesics in eight pediatric specialty units. Medical records of patients (n = 153) who were reported by nurses to be having pain were reviewed. Results showed that there…

Recent studies have made it clear that there are substantial opportunities to improve end-of-life care. Doing so will require solid evidence on which to base clinical and policy decisions and this, in turn, will require a focused research effort.…

The psychometric characteristics of the Faces Pain Scale (FPS) were evaluated in three groups of preschool and school-aged children (3. 5-4.5; 4.5-5.5 and 5.5-6.5 years, respectively). The FPS was adequately comprehended by even young children. It…

A retrospective analysis was performed to describe the course of terminal care provided to dying hospitalized children in terms of symptom assessment and management, and communication and decision-making, at the end of life. Seventy-seven of 236…

Concerns that high dose opioids and sedatives might shorten patient survival could contribute to insufficient symptom alleviation for terminally ill cancer patients. To examine the effects of opioids and sedatives prescribed in the final 48 hours on…

Life-threatening illness is fortunately rare in children. Some children, however, will need palliative care for symptom control; psychological support may be needed by the child and the child's family; and families may require help with decisions…

The purpose of this quasi-experimental (pre and posttest) study was to test a model pain management program (PMP) to implement the American Pain Society (APS) quality assurance standards for the management of acute and chronic cancer pain using a…

Measurement is a fundamental step in improving the quality of care for dying patients and their families. Yet, there are important methodological challenges to be addressed. In conducting surveys about the patient and family experience, research is…

Despite the universality of dying, research has not focused on developing conceptual models and measurement tools for examining the quality of care and quality of life of dying patients and their loved ones. We present here a vision and research…

Conceptual models and the taxonomies associated with them are inherent tools of goal-directed activity. Conceptual models partition reality, discerning differences within a phenomenologic continuum; a process that is a fundamental requisite for…
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