Assessment of Long-term Psychological Outcomes after Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Admission: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Title

Assessment of Long-term Psychological Outcomes after Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Admission: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Creator

Ko MSM; Poh PF; Heng KYC; Sultana R; Murphy B; Ng RWL; Lee JH

Publisher

JAMA Pediatrics

Date

2022

Subject

admission; Pediatric intensive care unit; PICU; psychological outcomes; Systematic Review

Description

Importance: The pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) exposes children to stressful experiences with potential long-term psychological repercussions. However, current understanding of post-PICU psychological outcomes is incomplete. Objective(s): To systematically review and evaluate reported long-term psychological outcomes among children previously admitted to the PICU. Data Sources: A systematic search of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, MEDLINE (PubMed), and PsycINFO was conducted from database inception to June 2021. Search terms included phrases related to intensive care (eg, intensive care units and critical care) and terms for psychological disorders (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, conduct disorder, and neurodevelopmental disorder) limited to the pediatric population. Study Selection: This systematic review and meta-analysis included randomized clinical trials and observational studies reporting psychological disorders among children younger than 18 years who were admitted to the PICU with follow-up for at least 3 months. Psychological disorders were defined using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition). Children were excluded if they were admitted to the PICU for primary brain conditions (eg, traumatic brain injury, meningoencephalitis, and brain tumors) or discharged to the home for palliative care. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Titles and abstracts were independently screened by 2 reviewers, with data extraction conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Data were pooled using a random-effects model during meta-analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-corrected IQ scores and long-term psychological outcomes measured by scales such as the Child Behavior Checklist (higher scores indicate more behavioral problems) among children admitted to the PICU. Result(s): Of 9193 records identified, 31 independent studies (5 randomized clinical trials and 26 observational studies) involving 7786 children (mean age, 7.3 years [95% CI, 6.2-8.4 years]; 4267 boys [54.8%]; race and ethnicity were not reported by all studies) admitted to the PICU were included. Overall, 1 of 19 children (5.3%) to 14 of 16 children (88.0%) previously admitted to the PICU were reported to have at least 1 psychological disorder. Studies that examined posttraumatic stress disorder reported that 6 of 60 children (10.0%) to 31 of 102 children (30.4%) met the diagnostic criteria for the disorder at 3 to 6 months of follow-up. Compared with healthy children, those admitted to the PICU had lower IQ scores at 1 to 2 years of follow-up (mean, 89.40 points [95% CI, 88.33-90.47 points] vs 100.70 points [95% CI, 99.43-101.97 points]; P <.001) and 3 to 5 years of follow-up (mean, 88.54 points [95% CI, 83.92-93.16 points] vs 103.18 [95% CI, 100.36-105.99 points]; P <.001) and greater total emotional and behavioral problems at 4 years of follow-up (mean, 51.69 points [95% CI, 50.37-53.01 points] vs 46.66 points [95% CI, 45.20-48.13 points]; P <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review and meta-analysis found a high burden of psychological sequelae among children previously admitted to the PICU, suggesting that risk stratification and early interventions are needed for high-risk groups.. Copyright © 2022 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Rights

Article information provided for research and reference use only. PedPalASCNET does not hold any rights over the resource listed here. All rights are retained by the journal listed under publisher and/or the creator(s).

Citation List Month

March 2022 List

Collection

Citation

Ko MSM; Poh PF; Heng KYC; Sultana R; Murphy B; Ng RWL; Lee JH, “Assessment of Long-term Psychological Outcomes after Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Admission: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” Pediatric Palliative Care Library, accessed July 6, 2022, https://pedpalascnetlibrary.omeka.net/items/show/17833.

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